The Bureau consists of the President, the Honorary Treasurer, five Vice Presidents one from each of the five Continents including the First Vice President and the Second Vice President, and eighteen additional members. The Honorary Life President, the Immediate Past President, the Immediate Past First Vice President, and the Immediate Past Honorary Treasurer are also members of the Bureau with voice, but without vote. The Chair of the Athletes Committee is a member of the FINA Bureau without vote.

From the 25 voting members of the Bureau, 17 are elected by the General Congress in accordance with the elections of their respective Continental Organisations and the following geographical representation: four from Africa, four from the Americas, four from Asia, four from Europe and one from Oceania. Another eight members are elected from the world at large, not exceeding one from Africa, two from Asia, one from Oceania, two from the Americas and two from Europe.

The General Congress elects from among these 17 members the President, the five Vice Presidents (including the First Vice President and the Second Vice President), and the Honorary Treasurer.

According to the FINA Constitution, the rights and duties of the Bureau shall include the following: